visionsystemsdesign/uses-for-polarization-imaging-in-machine-and-computer-vision provide some great example of polarization in imaging.
Some example are as follows:
Figure 1. A crossed polarizer application consists of polarized light source and a second polarizer placed in front of the camera.
Figure 2: Common device setup when using polarization.
Figure 3: The printed number under the barcode is not readable in the left-hand image but is clear in the right image using crossed polarizing filters.
Figure 2. Using a setup like that in Figure 1 enables the reduction or removal of specular reflection, such as the glint off bubble pack pictured here, making it easier to see the pill beneath.
Figure 4: Double Bounce Reflections on a Shiny Part with Cross Polarizers (a). Parallel Polarized Light Image Rejecting Extra Reflections (b).
Figure 5: Tape on a metal surface can be made to stand out using polarized light.
Figure 6: The edge of clear tape on a clear plastic ruler can be very difficult to see, but because of the diffuse nature of the edge reflection, polarization can make is stand out.
Figure 7: Polarized light causes the stress lines in a plastic lid to be highlighted.
Figure 8: A plastic ruler shows a stress line down the middle, but with a different polarization (right) the line suddenly stops due to a change in the thickness.
All of the images here is taken from.